How to use the Atmel KMS/DRM LCD driver


Introduction

Since linux-3.18-at91, the recent Atmel SoCs have a new LCD driver that is based on the Linux KMS/DRM sub-system. As the old fbdev (framebuffer) subsystem is being deprecated and is certainly limited, we decided to move to a more future proof infrastructure.

This driver can be found in the drivers/gpu/drm/atmel-hlcdc/ directory.

The atmel-hlcdc driver

A good introduction to this driver by its author is the paper that Boris Brezillon wrote for Embedded Linux Conference Europe 2014: The DRM/KMS subsystem from a newbie's point of view.

The atmel-hlcdc driver supports:

  • base layer
  • overlays (planes in DRM words)
  • alpha channel blending of overlays
  • color space conversion: RGB (different formats), YUV (different formats as well)
  • panning
  • rotation
  • scaling / upsampling
  • hardware cursor (when supported by hardware)

Using modetest

Modetest is the testing tool for a DRM driver. It uses native DRM commands.

modetest output

Example on a SAMA5D4-EK with an HDMI monitor connected.

root@sama5d4ek:~# ./modetest 
trying to open device 'i915'...failed.
trying to open device 'radeon'...failed.
trying to open device 'nouveau'...failed.
trying to open device 'vmwgfx'...failed.
trying to open device 'omapdrm'...failed.
trying to open device 'exynos'...failed.
trying to open device 'tilcdc'...failed.
trying to open device 'msm'...failed.
trying to open device 'sti'...failed.
trying to open device 'tegra'...failed.
trying to open device 'imx-drm'...failed.
trying to open device 'atmel-hlcdc'...success.
Raw EDID:
    ff ff ff ff ff ff 00 10 ac 42 f0 53 33 37 43 20
    17 01 03 80 2f 1e 78 ea 23 c5 a5 57 4f 9e 26 0f
    50 54 a5 4b 00 71 4f 81 80 b3 00 01 01 01 01 01
    01 01 01 01 01 21 39 90 30 62 1a 27 40 68 b0 36
    00 d9 28 11 00 00 1c 00 00 00 ff 00 34 34 46 47
    59 33 38 38 43 37 33 53 0a 00 00 00 fc 00 44 45
    4c 4c 20 50 32 32 31 33 0a 20 20 00 00 00 fd 00
    38 4b 1e 53 10 00 0a 20 20 20 20 20 20 00 b9 0e
Encoders:
id   crtc   type   possible crtcs   possible clones   
5   15   TMDS   0x00000001   0x00000000
7   0   LVDS   0x00000001   0x00000000

Connectors:
id   encoder   status      type   size (mm)   modes   encoders
6   5   connected   HDMI-A   470x300      11   5
  modes:
   name refresh (Hz) hdisp hss hse htot vdisp vss vse vtot)
  1680x1050 60 1680 1784 1960 2240 1050 1053 1059 1089 flags: nhsync, pvsync; type: preferred, driver
  1280x1024 75 1280 1296 1440 1688 1024 1025 1028 1066 flags: phsync, pvsync; type: driver
  1280x1024 60 1280 1328 1440 1688 1024 1025 1028 1066 flags: phsync, pvsync; type: driver
  1152x864 75 1152 1216 1344 1600 864 865 868 900 flags: phsync, pvsync; type: driver
  1024x768 75 1024 1040 1136 1312 768 769 772 800 flags: phsync, pvsync; type: driver
  1024x768 60 1024 1048 1184 1344 768 771 777 806 flags: nhsync, nvsync; type: driver
  800x600 75 800 816 896 1056 600 601 604 625 flags: phsync, pvsync; type: driver
  800x600 60 800 840 968 1056 600 601 605 628 flags: phsync, pvsync; type: driver
  640x480 75 640 656 720 840 480 481 484 500 flags: nhsync, nvsync; type: driver
  640x480 60 640 656 752 800 480 490 492 525 flags: nhsync, nvsync; type: driver
  720x400 70 720 738 846 900 400 412 414 449 flags: nhsync, pvsync; type: driver
  props:
   1 EDID:
      flags: immutable blob
      blobs:

      value:
         00ffffffffffff0010ac42f053333743
         20170103802f1e78ea23c5a5574f9e26
         0f5054a54b00714f8180b30001010101
         01010101010121399030621a274068b0
         3600d9281100001c000000ff00343446
         4759333838433733530a000000fc0044
         454c4c2050323231330a2020000000fd
         00384b1e5310000a20202020202000b9
   2 DPMS:
      flags: enum
      enums: On=0 Standby=1 Suspend=2 Off=3
      value: 0
8   0   connected   LVDS   152x91      1   7
  modes:
   name refresh (Hz) hdisp hss hse htot vdisp vss vse vtot)
  800x480 60 800 801 865 929 480 481 504 526 flags: ; type: 
  props:
   1 EDID:
      flags: immutable blob
      blobs:

      value:
   2 DPMS:
      flags: enum
      enums: On=0 Standby=1 Suspend=2 Off=3
      value: 0

CRTCs:
id   fb   pos   size
15   31   (0,0)   (1680x1050)
  1680x1050 60 1680 1784 1960 2240 1050 1053 1059 1089 flags: nhsync, pvsync; type: preferred, driver
  props:

Planes:
id   crtc   fb   CRTC x,y   x,y   gamma size   possible crtcs
11   15   31   0,0      0,0   0          0x00000001
  formats: XR12 AR12 RA12 AR15 RG16 RG24 XR24 AR24 RA24
  props:
   4 type:
      flags: immutable enum
      enums: Overlay=0 Primary=1 Cursor=2
      value: 1
   10 rotation:
      flags: bitmask
      values: rotate-0=0x1 rotate-90=0x2 rotate-180=0x4 rotate-270=0x8
      value: 1
12   0   0   0,0      0,0   0          0x00000001
  formats: XR12 AR12 RA12 AR15 RG16 RG24 XR24 AR24 RA24
  props:
   4 type:
      flags: immutable enum
      enums: Overlay=0 Primary=1 Cursor=2
      value: 0
   9 alpha:
      flags: range
      values: 0 255
      value: 255
   10 rotation:
      flags: bitmask
      values: rotate-0=0x1 rotate-90=0x2 rotate-180=0x4 rotate-270=0x8
      value: 1
13   0   0   0,0      0,0   0          0x00000001
  formats: XR12 AR12 RA12 AR15 RG16 RG24 XR24 AR24 RA24
  props:
   4 type:
      flags: immutable enum
      enums: Overlay=0 Primary=1 Cursor=2
      value: 0
   9 alpha:
      flags: range
      values: 0 255
      value: 255
   10 rotation:
      flags: bitmask
      values: rotate-0=0x1 rotate-90=0x2 rotate-180=0x4 rotate-270=0x8
      value: 1
14   0   0   0,0      0,0   0          0x00000001
  formats: XR12 AR12 RA12 AR15 RG16 RG24 XR24 AR24 RA24 AYUV YUYV UYVY YVYU VYUY NV21 NV61 YU16 YU12
  props:
   4 type:
      flags: immutable enum
      enums: Overlay=0 Primary=1 Cursor=2
      value: 0
   9 alpha:
      flags: range
      values: 0 255
      value: 255
   10 rotation:
      flags: bitmask
      values: rotate-0=0x1 rotate-90=0x2 rotate-180=0x4 rotate-270=0x8
      value: 1

Frame buffers:
id   size   pitch

Some modetest commands

Here are some useful commands:

Display a basic test pattern with selected geometry (Don't press "enter" again until you're done) on the HDMI monitor:

modetest -M atmel-hlcdc -s 6@15:1024x768

Larger resolution if the HDMI connected monitor supports it:

modetest -M atmel-hlcdc -s 6@15:1680x1050

Now same test patern on the LCD PDA 7" display:

modetest -M atmel-hlcdc -s 8@15:800x480

or (if the HDMI cable is not connected):

modetest -M atmel-hlcdc -s 6@14:800x480

A test patern for background + a 300x200 overlay at 150 and 50 location:

modetest -M atmel-hlcdc -s 8@15:800x480 -P 15:300x200+150+50

Here is the output of this last command (HDMI screen unplugged):

root@sama5d4ek:~# modetest -M atmel-hlcdc -s 8@15:800x480 -P 15:300x200+150+50
setting mode 800x480@XR24 on connectors 8, crtc 15
testing 300x200@XR24 overlay plane 12

PDA 4" on sama5d2:

modetest -M atmel-hlcdc -s 6@13:480x272

DRM Library

The different features are supported and accessible in the Linux kernel. The constrain is to use the libdrm to access them and the proper call to our KMS/DRM driver named atmel-hlcdc. Note that these feature are not reachable using the fbdev emulation.

Here are some two more links detailing simple use cases:

Home of libdrm and the modetest tool source code is actually part of libdrm.

Adapt to a new LCD panel

Panel definitions are stored in C code and called from DT by the simple-panel.

So, you can store your panel definition here: drivers/gpu/drm/panel/panel-simple.c

Here is an example of the definition structure for the PDA 4.3" equipped with a Innolux at043tn24 LCD. The geometry is thus described like this:

static const struct drm_display_mode innolux_at043tn24_mode = {
        .clock = 9000,
        .hdisplay = 480,
        .hsync_start = 480 + 2,
        .hsync_end = 480 + 2 + 41,
        .htotal = 480 + 2 + 41 + 2,
        .vdisplay = 272,
        .vsync_start = 272 + 2,
        .vsync_end = 272 + 2 + 11,
        .vtotal = 272 + 2 + 11 + 2,
        .vrefresh = 60,
        .flags = DRM_MODE_FLAG_NHSYNC | DRM_MODE_FLAG_NVSYNC,
};

static const struct panel_desc innolux_at043tn24 = {
        .modes = &innolux_at043tn24_mode,
        .num_modes = 1,
        .bpc = 8,
        .size = {
                .width = 95,
                .height = 54,
        },
        .bus_format = MEDIA_BUS_FMT_RGB888_1X24,
};

[..]

static const struct of_device_id platform_of_match[] = {
        {

[..]
        }, {   
                .compatible = "innolux,at043tn24",
                .data = &innolux_at043tn24,
        }, {   
[..]
        }, {
                /* sentinel */
        }
};
MODULE_DEVICE_TABLE(of, platform_of_match);

And here is the DT description that links to this panel:

        panel: panel {
                compatible = "innolux,at043tn24", "simple-panel";
                backlight = <&backlight>;
                power-supply = <&panel_reg>;
                #address-cells = <1>;
                #size-cells = <0>;
                status = "okay";

                port@0 {
                        reg = <0>;
                        #address-cells = <1>;
                        #size-cells = <0>;

                        panel_input: endpoint@0 {
                                reg = <0>;
                                remote-endpoint = <&hlcdc_panel_output>;
                        };
                };
        };

Use of the legacy fbdev emulation

For DRM drivers, you can use the old fbdev emulation. It is somehow a temporary workaround for software that still uses the fbdev interface. The preferred way of taking advantage of this driver is to use the DRM kernel API.

Anyway, if you still need this emulated fbdev interface, you can use the following instructions.

Choose supported modes

By default, the fbdev emulation on top of DRM driver is in 24 bits (RGB888).
For changing the the fbdev emulation color mode to 16 bits (RGB565) on top of DRM driver, you must choose the mode at boot time on the Linux command line.

So, you can add to the cmdline:

for PDA7" 16 bits color mode:

video=Unknown-1:800x480-16

or for PDA4.3" 16 bits color mode:

video=Unknown-1:480x272-16

For HDMI, here are some tricks as we have 2 different connectors:

For HDMI only: disable LCD:

video=HDMI-A-1:800x600-16 video=Unknown-1:d

For only screen and disabling HDMI output if it's connected:

video=HDMI-A-1:d video=Unknown-1:800x480-16

Set mode before using the fbdev

For fbdev emulation of DRM drivers, we must set the mode the fb0 need to use.

Example for /dev/fb0 and PDA7" LCD screen:

echo U:800x480p-0 > /sys/class/graphics/fb0/mode
or for /dev/fb0 and PDA4.3" LCD screen:
echo U:480x272p-0 > /sys/class/graphics/fb0/mode

Note that you can check available modes in the file:

$ cat /sys/class/graphics/fb0/modes 
U:480x272p-0

The easies way to do so is to run:

head -1 /sys/class/graphics/fb0/modes > /sys/class/graphics/fb0/mode

You can also use fbset:

fbset -g 800 480 800 480 16

You may also need to disable the blanking of the LCD:

echo 0 > /sys/class/graphics/fb0/blank
r8 - 10 Oct 2017 - 12:46:03 - NicolasFerre
 
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